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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all over the world and also have been found in Australia in small numbers. Recently they have become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and most parts of the Earth, within the last ten years. .
The main reason behind the increase is thought to be caused by insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are highly resilient to many of the commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world traveling with bed bugs being dispersed in bags, shoes and clothing. Once acquired at turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs may then be transported and introduced back to the houses of guests in their luggage.
Many hostels worldwide have now banned the usage of travelers own sleeping linen in shared accommodation for a safety precaution against this pest.
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In early infestations, bed bugs are usually found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. Later, since the infestation spreads, the bugs move to any tiny crevices, which may be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Because of their color, adult bed bugs can easily be spotted with the naked eye on sheets and bedding, but rather difficult to see on brown wooden floors and other black surfaces.
Heavily used hiding places are evident from black or brown stains of blood excrement or spotting. There might also be an offensive sweet tacky odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour sometimes called buggy is like the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin shells might also be found near such areas, in addition to living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This method of communication and also the launch of alarm pheromones can make them quite hard to deal with as bed bugs become alert and fast vacate the area being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs can also propagate into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a suitable host, bed bugs will feed and therefore are likely to haven in close proximity. In cases like this, new locations can quickly become infested with bed bugs in a brief amount of time. .
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Different people have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of factors. Some individuals have little or no reaction to the bite. In others the sting site can become red and intensely itchy. This can happen during the course of the night or might take around 9-14 days to develop.
The red wheals can range from 2 cm to 5 cm in width with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock could happen in individuals which are allergic, although this is quite rare. .
Discomfort and reduction of sleep is common from the effects of bed bugs. Bites may be found on many different areas on the body. Another characteristic is the bites are in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. The bed bug causes these rows being upset during feeding and having to pierce the skin to nourish again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but may feed on other mammals and poultry if necessary. Although they may carry diseases such as hepatitis they are not known to transfer such diseases to other individuals.
Bed bugs are problematic to treat, together with eradication unlikely to be achieved with a single treatment. The bed bugs may be killed by sprays but they're mostly ineffective on the eggs. Follow up inspections are required and additional treatments are often necessary.
Bed bug eggs' survival is also an issue. It is not uncommon for the live bed bugs amongst an infestation to be wholly eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the location once again. The eggs can also have an incubation period up to fourteen days and may be deposited in hidden areas that are tough to treat. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are created more problematic due to the now smaller dimensions of the newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is detected, all adjoining rooms need to be inspected and handled if also influenced.
This can be completed by using adhesive these details tape (if insect numbers are very little ) to trap the insect. Vacuuming is also recommended before substance treatment as it eliminates all dust and debris from the site of this infestation making it easier for following chemical control to penetrate and in turn succeed.